Rare Earth Elements supply vs. clean energy technologies: new problems to be solve
Z. Li 1
Y. Wei 1
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Department of Mineral Resources Engineering University of Science and Thechnology Beijing, Beijing, China
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2016;32(4):29–44
Rare earth elements (REEs) provide important properties to clean energy technologies such as wind turbine and hybrid electric vehicles. The global REE demand will grow rapidly during the global transformation toward a greener economy in the next decades. This high demand will require a steady supply chain in the long run. China has a monopoly of global REE production and extraction. The global REE supply chain runs the risk of disruption along with Chinese REE policy evolution. To overcome this supply chain vulnerability, new strategies and measures should be adopted to satisfy future REE supply/demand. There is a pressing need to explore REE deposits, develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, improve substitution technologies for REEs, and reduce the number of critical REEs used in devices. Such measures are facing significant challenges due to environmental factors and an unbalanced market, and overcoming them requires efforts from government and REE companies.
Dostawy pierwiastków ziem rzadkich (REE) a czyste technologie energetyczne: nowe problemy do rozwiązania
pierwiastki ziem rzadkich, czysta technologia energetyczna, łańcuch dostaw
Pierwiastki ziem rzadkich (Rare Earths Elements) mają istotne znaczenie dla rozwoju czystych technologii energetycznych, takich jak turbiny wiatrowe czy pojazdy hybrydowe. Światowy popyt na REE będzie wzrastał w związku z globalną transformacją w kierunku bardziej czystej (ekologicznej) gospodarki w okresie najbliższych dziesięcioleci. Wysoki popyt wymagać będzie stabilnego łańcucha dostaw REE w dłuższej perspektywie. Chiny mają monopol w zakresie globalnej produkcji i wydobycia REE. Światowe dostawy REE obarczone są jednak ryzykiem zakłóceń wynikających z chińskiej polityki w tym zakresie. W związku z tym, powinny być przyjęte nowe środki i strategie w celu zaspokojenia przyszłego popytu/podaży na REE. Istnieje pilna konieczność: poszukiwania nowych złóż, opracowania skutecznych technik recyklingu z wycofanych z eksploatacji produktów, poprawy technologii z zastosowaniem substytutów REE oraz zmniejszenie liczby krytycznych pierwiastków ziem rzadkich w stosowanych urządzeniach. Działania te stanowią poważne wyzwanie ze względu na czynniki środowiskowe i niezrównoważony rynek (monopol podaży). Przezwyciężenie ich wymaga odpowiednich działań ze strony rządu i firm zajmujących się produkcją REE.
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