ORIGINAL PAPER
Hydrogen in the strategies of the European Union Member States
 
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences
2
Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Renata Koneczna   

Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences
Submission date: 2021-08-17
Final revision date: 2021-08-24
Acceptance date: 2021-09-07
Publication date: 2021-09-21
 
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2021;37(3):53–74
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Strategies and roadmaps are essential in areas that require long-term planning, such as the energy transition. Strategic plans can play an important role in developing visions for reducing CO2 emissions, developing renewable energy sources (RES) and hydrogen technologies. Hydrogen can be included in value chains in various sectors of the economy as raw material, emission-free fuel, or as an energy carrier and storage. The analysis of the future of hydrogen energy, which is an essential component of transforming the economy into an environmentally neutral one, is an integral part of the strategies of the European Union (EU) Member States. This article reviews the strategic documents of the EU countries in the field of a hydrogen economy. Currently, six EU Member States have approved the hydrogen strategy (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Hungary, Czech Republic), and two of them have roadmaps (Spain, Finland). The others are working on their completion in 2021. EU countries have the possibility of energy transformation based on a hydrogen policy, including green hydrogen, within the framework of the European Green Deal, i.e. aiming for climate neutrality and creating a modern and environmentally friendly economy. By 2030, some of the countries plan to become a leader not only in the field of hydrogen production or RES development aimed at this process but also in the areas of research and development (R&D), sales of new technologies, and international cooperation. Member countries are focused on the production of clean hydrogen using electrolysis, creating incentives to stimulate demand, developing a hydrogen market, and implementing hydrogen infrastructure.
METADATA IN OTHER LANGUAGES:
Polish
Wodór w strategiach państw członkowskich Unii Europejskiej
odnawialne źródła energii, wodór, transformacja energetyczna, strategia wodorowa, neutralność klimatyczna
Strategie i mapy drogowe są niezbędne w obszarach wymagających długoterminowego planowania, takich jak transformacja energetyczna. Plany strategiczne mogą odgrywać ważną rolę w tworzeniu wspólnych wizji w zakresie obniżania emisji CO2, rozwoju odnawialnych źródeł energii (OZE) i technologii wodorowych. Wodór może być włączany do łańcuchów wartości w zróżnicowanych sektorach gospodarki jako surowiec, bezemisyjne paliwo, lub jako nośnik i magazyn energii. Analiza przyszłości energetyki wodorowej, która jest niezbędnym komponentem przekształcenia gospodarki na neutralną dla środowiska, stanowi nieodłączny element strategii państw członkowskich Unii Europejskiej (UE). W niniejszym artykule dokonano przeglądu dokumentów strategicznych krajów UE w zakresie gospodarki wodorowej. Obecnie sześć państw członkowskich UE zatwierdziło strategie wodorowe (Niemcy, Francja, Holandia, Portugalia, Węgry, Czechy), a dwa mapy drogowe (Hiszpania, Finlandia). Pozostałe pracują nad ich zakończeniem w 2021 r. Państwa UE mają możliwość transformacji energetycznej w oparciu o politykę wodorową, w tym zielony wodór, w ramach założeń Europejskiego Zielonego Ładu, tzn. dążenia do neutralności klimatycznej oraz tworzenia nowoczesnej i przyjaznej środowisku gospodarki. W horyzoncie do 2030 r. niektóre z państw planują osiągnąć pozycję lidera nie tylko w zakresie produkcji wodoru lub rozwoju OZE ukierunkowanego na ten proces, ale również w obszarach działalności badawczo-rozwojowej (B+R), sprzedaży nowych technologii oraz współpracy na arenie międzynarodowej. Kraje członkowskie skupione są na produkcji czystego wodoru z wykorzystaniem elektrolizy, tworzeniu zachęt do pobudzania popytu, rozwoju rynku wodorowego oraz wdrażaniu infrastruktury wodorowej.
 
REFERENCES (41)
1.
Baykara, S.Z. 2018. Hydrogen: A brief overview on its sources, production and environmental impact. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 43(23), pp. 10605–10614. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.02.022.
 
2.
Bleischwitz, R. and Bader, N. 2010. Policies for the transition towards a hydrogen economy: the EU case. Energy Policy 38(10), pp. 5388–5398. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.041.
 
3.
Cader et al. 2021 – Cader, J., Koneczna, R. and Olczak, P. 2021. The Impact of Economic, Energy, and Environmental Factors on the Development of the Hydrogen Economy. Energies 14(16). DOI: 10.3390/en14164811.
 
4.
EC 2018. Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The European Council, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee, The Committee Of The Regions And The European Investment Bank. A Clean Planet for all. COM/2018/773 final, Brussels. [Online] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/lega... [Accessed: 2021-07-30].
 
5.
EC 2019. Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The European Council, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions. The European Green Deal. COM/2019/640 final, Brussels. [Online] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/lega... [Accessed: 2021-07-30].
 
6.
EC 2020. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A hydrogen strategy for a climate-neutral Europe. COM/2020/301 final, Brussels. [Online] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/lega... [Accessed: 2021-07-30].
 
7.
EC 2021a. European Cluster Collaboration Platform. [Online] https://clustercollaboration.e... [Accessed: 2021-07-30].
 
8.
EC 2021b. European Partnerships: Commission invests €22 billion. [Online] https://ec.europa.eu/commissio... [Accessed: 2021-07-20].
 
9.
ECPA 2021. A New Energy Sector Emerges in the Region. [Online] https://ecpamericas.org/newsle... [Accessed: 2021-07-10].
 
10.
Eurostat 2021a. Energy consumption. [Online] https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/... Energy_statistics_-_an_overview#Final_energy_consumption [Accessed: 2021-07-30].
 
11.
Eurostat 2021b. Greenhouse gas emissions by source sector. [Online] https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/... [Accessed: 2021-07-30].
 
12.
FCH 2019. Hydrogen Roadmap Europe: A Sustainable Pathway for the European Energy Transition. Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, pp. 1-70. [Online] https://www.fch.europa.eu/site... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
13.
FCH JU 2020a. Opportunities for Hydrogen Energy Technologies Considering the National Energy & Climate Plans. Final report. [Online] https://www.fch.europa.eu/publ... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
14.
FCH JU 2020b. Opportunities for Hydrogen Energy Technologies Considering the National Energy & Climate Plans. France. The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, Brussels. [Online] https://www.fch.europa.eu/site... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
15.
FCH JU 2020c. Opportunities for Hydrogen Energy Technologies Considering the National Energy & Climate Plans. Germany. The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, Brussels. [Online] https://www.fch.europa.eu/site... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
16.
FCH JU 2020d. Opportunities for Hydrogen Energy Technologies Considering the National Energy & Climate Plans. Portugal. The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, Brussels. [Online] https://www.fch.europa.eu/site... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
17.
FCH JU 2020e. Opportunities for Hydrogen Energy Technologies Considering the National Energy & Climate Plans Table. Poland. The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, Brussels. [Online] https://www.fch.europa.eu/site... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
18.
FCHO 2019. Hydrogen demand by sector. [Online] https://www.fchobservatory.eu/... [Accessed: 2021-07-30].
 
19.
FCHO 2021. Total patent registrations. [Online] https://www.fchobservatory.eu/... [Accessed: 2021-02-8].
 
20.
FMGermany 2020 – The National Hydrogen Strategy 2020. Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2020. Germany, pp. 1–32. [Online] https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
21.
Frangoul, A. 2021. Dubai launches region’s ‘first industrial scale’ green hydrogen plant. [Online] https://www.cnbc.com/2021/05/2... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
22.
Guidehouse 2020. European Hydrogen Backbone. [In:] Madrid Forum, 14 October 2020, Madrid, pp. 1–10. [Online] https://gasforclimate2050.eu/p... [Accessed: 2021-07-1].
 
23.
Hostettler et al. eds. 2015 – Hostettler, S., Gadgil, A. and Hazboun, E. (eds.). 2015. Sustainable Access to Energy in the Global South. Essential. Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319–20209-9.
 
24.
Hydrogen Europe 2020. Hydrogen Europe’s Position Paper on the Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy. Hydrogen Europe, Brussels, December 2020, pp. 1–20. [Online] https://www.hydrogeneurope.eu/... [Accessed: 2021-07-2].
 
25.
IEA 2019. The Future of Hydrogen. [Online] https://www.iea.org/reports/th... [Accessed: 2021-02-2].
 
26.
IEA 2020. Energy Technology RD&D Budgets 2020. Database. [Online] https://www.iea.org/reports/en... [Accessed: 2021-02-2].
 
27.
IEA 2021. Net Zero by 2050 A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector. Paris.
 
28.
IndexBox 2021. Hydrogen data. [Online] https://app.indexbox.io/meta#p... [Accessed: 2021-01-2].
 
29.
IRENA 2020. Green Hydrogen Cost Reduction: Scaling up Electrolysers to Meet the 1.50C Climate Goal. International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi., pp. 1–105. [Online] https://irena.org/-/media/File... [Accessed: 2021-07-2].
 
30.
IRENA 2021. Green hydrogen supply: A guide to policy making. International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi., pp. 1–64. [Online] https://www.irena.org/-/media/... [Accessed: 2021-07-2].
 
31.
Madsen, A.N. and Andersen, P.D. 2010. Innovative regions and industrial clusters in hydrogen and fuel cell technology. Energy Policy 38(10), pp. 5372–5381. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.040.
 
32.
McPherson et al. 2018 – McPherson, M., Johnson, N. and Strubegger, M. 2018. The role of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies in enabling global low-carbon energy transitions. Applied Energy 216, pp. 649–661. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.110.
 
33.
MEACP 2020 – Netherlands Government Strategy on Hydrogen. Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy 2020, pp. 1–14. [Online] https://www.government.nl/bina... [Accessed: 2021-07-2].
 
34.
MECA 2020 – Portugal National Hydrogen Strategy (En-H2). Ministry of Environment and Climate Action 2020, pp. 1–12. [Online] https://kig.pl/wp-content/uplo... [Accessed: 2021-07-28].
 
35.
MEDItaly 2021 – National Hydrogen Strategy Preliminary Guidelines. Ministry of Economic Development 2021 (Strategia Nazionale Idrogeno Linee Guida Preliminari. Ministero dello sviluppo Economico 2021.), pp. 1–20 (in Italian). [Online] https://www.mise.gov.it/images... [Accessed: 2021-07-20].
 
36.
MEGChile 2020 – National Green Hydrogen Strategy. Chile, a clean energy provider for a carbon neutral planet. Ministry of Energy, Government of Chile 2020, pp. 1–33. [Online] https://energia.gob.cl/sites/d... [Accessed: 2021-07-2].
 
37.
METDC 2020 – Hydrogen Roadmap: A commitment to renewable hydrogen. Ministry for the Ecological Transition and the Demographic Challenge 2020 (Hoja de Ruta del hidrógeno: Una apeusta por el hidrogeno removable. Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico 2020), pp. 1–70 (in Spanish). [Online] https://www.miteco.gob.es/imag... [Accessed: 2021-07-2].
 
38.
METFrance 2020 – National strategy for the development of carbon-free hydrogen in France. Press kit. Ministry of Ecological Transition 2020 (Stratégie nationale pour le développement de l’hydrogène décarboné en France. Dossier de presse. Ministère de la Transition Écologique 2020), pp. 1–17 (in French). [Online] https://www.entreprises.gouv.f... [Accessed: 2021-07-2].
 
39.
MITCzechia 2021 – Hydrogen Strategy of the Czech Republic. Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic 2021 (Vodíková Strategie České Republiky. Ministerstvo průmyslu a obchodu České republiky 2021), pp. 1–175 (in Czech). [Online] https://www.mpo.cz/assets/cz/r... [Accessed: 2021-07-28].
 
40.
Steen, M. 2016. Building a hydrogen infrastructure in the EU. [In:] Ball, M., Basile, A. and Veziroglu, T.N. eds. Compendium of Hydrogen Energy. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy. Oxford: Woodhead Publishing, pp. 267–292. DOI: 10.1016/B978-1-78242-364-5.00012-9.
 
41.
Yue et al. 2021 – Yue, M., Lambert, H., Pahon, E., Roche, R., Jemei, S. and Hissel, D. 2021. Hydrogen energy systems: A critical review of technologies, applications, trends and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 146(C). DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2021.11118.
 
eISSN:2299-2324
ISSN:0860-0953