ORIGINAL PAPER
Soil contamination from heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (PAH, PCB and HCB) in the coastal area of Västernorrland, Sweden
Per Lindh 1,2
,
 
 
 
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1
Swedish Transport Administration
2
Lund University, Division of Building Materials
3
Université Libre de Bruxelles
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Polina Lemenkova   

Université Libre de Bruxelles
Submission date: 2022-02-21
Final revision date: 2022-04-11
Acceptance date: 2022-05-18
Publication date: 2022-06-28
 
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2022;38(2):147–168
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
This paper presents an experimental study on the leaching of heavy metals, toxic chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) – PAH, PCB and HCB – from soil dredged from the coastal area of Västernorrland in northern Sweden. The soil was stabilized with cement/slag. Samples were subjected to modified surface leaching and shake tests using technical standards of the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI). The experiments were performed using different blends of binding agents (30/70, 50/50, 70/30) and binder quantities (120 and 150 kg/m3) to analyze their effects on leaching. Soil properties, tools, and workflow are described. Binders included Portland cement and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Samples were tested to evaluate the min/max contents of pollutants (µg/l) for heavy metals (As, Ba, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, S, V, Zn) and the hydrocarbon fraction index in the excess water. The leaching of heavy metals and POPs was assessed in sediments after the addition of the binder. The comparison was made against the two mixes (cement/slag in 30/70% and high/low binder with low/high water ratio). The results showed that 70% slag decreases the leaching of heavy metals and POPs. The equilibrium concentrations of DOC and heavy metals at L/S 10 (μg/l) were measured during the shake experiments to compare their levels in the groundwater that was used as a leachate. The leached content was assessed at L/S 10 in the upscaling experiments using four samples for PAH, PCB and various fractions of hydrocarbons: C10–C40, C10–C12, C12–C16 and C35–C40. The shake test showed a decrease in the leaching of heavy metals and POP substances from the soil subjected to stabilization by a higher amount of slag added as a binder. A binder blend with 30% cement and 70% of GGBFS showed the best performance.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We acknowledge technical contribution of staff personnel during geotechnical works: Annika Åberg, Sweco, Anna-Karin Hjalmarsson, Miljökraft, Magnus Jinnerot, Swedish Cellulose Company (Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget SCA) for sampling. The SCA is responsible for the uptake of soil sediments and test experiments with specimens. We are thankful to the two anonymous reviewers for reading the manuscript and commenting on this work.
METADATA IN OTHER LANGUAGES:
Polish
Zanieczyszczenie gleby metalami ciężkimi i trwałymi zanieczyszczeniami organicznymi (WWA, PCB i HCB) na obszarze przybrzeżnym Västernorrland, Szwecja
gleba, Morze Bałtyckie, zanieczyszczenia morskie, inżynieria lądowa, geotechnika
Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia eksperymentalne badania dotyczące wymywania metali ciężkich, toksycznych chemikaliów i trwałych zanieczyszczeń organicznych (TZO): WWA, PCB i HCB z pobranej gleby na obszarze przybrzeżnym Västernorrland w północnej Szwecji. Gleba była stabilizowana cementem/żużlem. Próbki poddano zmodyfikowanym próbom wypłukiwania powierzchniowego i wstrząsom z zastosowaniem standardów technicznych Szwedzkiego Instytutu Geotechnicznego (SGI). Eksperymenty przeprowadzono przy użyciu różnych mieszanek środków wiążących (30/70, 50/50, 70/30) i ilości środka wiążącego (120 i 150 kg/m3) w celu przeanalizowania ich wpływu na ługowanie. Opisano właściwości gleby, narzędzia i przebieg pracy. Spoiwa obejmowały cement portlandzki i mielony granulowany żużel wielkopiecowy (GGBFS). Próbki zostały przetestowane w celu określenia min/max zawartości zanieczyszczeń (µg/l) dla metali ciężkich (As, Ba, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, S, V, Zn) i wskaźnika frakcji węglowodorowej w nadmiarze wody. Wymywanie metali ciężkich i TZO oceniano w osadach po dodaniu lepiszcza. Porównania dokonano dla dwóch mieszanek (cement/żużel w 30/70% i spoiwo o wysokiej/niskiej zawartości z niskim/wysokim stosunkiem wody). Wyniki wykazały, że 70% żużel zmniejsza wymywanie metali ciężkich i TZO. Stężenia równowagowe DOC i metali ciężkich przy L/S 10 (μg/l) mierzono podczas eksperymentów z wytrząsaniem w celu porównania ich poziomów w wodzie gruntowej stosowanej jako odciek. Zawartość wyługowaną oszacowano na poziomie L/S 10 w eksperymencie upscalingu (zwiększenia skali) przy użyciu 4 próbek WWA, PCB i różnych frakcji węglowodorów: C10–C40, C10–C12, C12–C16 i C35–C40. Próba wstrząsowa wykazała zmniejszenie wymywania metali ciężkich i substancji TZO z gleby poddanej stabilizacji większą ilością żużla dodawanego jako spoiwo. Najlepszą wydajność wykazała mieszanka spoiwowa zawierająca 30% cementu i 70% GGBFS.
 
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