ORIGINAL PAPER
The application of different optimization techniques and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for coal-consumption forecasting: a case study
 
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1
Sivas Cumhuriyet University
2
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University
3
Akdeniz University
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Mustafa Seker   

Sivas Cumhuriyet University
Submission date: 2022-01-16
Final revision date: 2022-06-05
Acceptance date: 2022-06-08
Publication date: 2022-06-28
 
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2022;38(2):77–111
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The demand for energy on a global scale increases day by day. Unlike renewable energy sources, fossil fuels have limited reserves and meet most of the world’s energy needs despite their adverse environmental effects. This study presents a new forecast strategy, including an optimization-based S-curve approach for coal consumption in Turkey. For this approach, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO), and Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) are among the meta-heuristic optimization techniques used to determine the optimum parameters of the S-curve. In addition, these algorithms and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have also been used to estimate coal consumption. In evaluating coal consumption with ANN, energy and economic parameters such as installed capacity, gross generation, net electric consumption, import, export, and population energy are used for input parameters. In ANN modeling, the Feed Forward Multilayer Perceptron Network structure was used, and Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation has used to perform network training. S-curves have been calculated using optimization, and their performance in predicting coal consumption has been evaluated statistically. The findings reveal that the optimization-based S-curve approach gives higher accuracy than ANN in solving the presented problem. The statistical results calculated by the GWO have higher accuracy than the PSO, WOA, and GA with R2 = 0.9881, RE = 0.011, RMSE = 1.079, MAE = 1.3584, and STD = 1.5187. The novelty of this study, the presented methodology does not need more input parameters for analysis. Therefore, it can be easily used with high accuracy to estimate coal consumption within other countries with an increasing trend in coal consumption, such as Turkey.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
METADATA IN OTHER LANGUAGES:
Polish
Zastosowanie różnych technik optymalizacji i sztucznych sieci neuronowych (SSN) do prognozowania zużycia węgla: studium przypadku
zużycie węgla, optymalizacja metaheurystyczna, optymalizacja szarego wilka, optymalizacja roju cząstek, optymalizacja wielorybów
Zapotrzebowanie na energię w skali globalnej rośnie z dnia na dzień. W przeciwieństwie do odnawialnych źródeł energii, paliwa kopalne mają ograniczone rezerwy i zaspokajają większość światowego zapotrzebowania na energię pomimo ich niekorzystnego wpływu na środowisko. Niniejsze opracowanie przedstawia nową strategię prognozowania, w tym oparte na optymalizacji podejście oparte na krzywej S dla zużycia węgla w Turcji. W tym podejściu algorytmy optymalizacji genetycznej (GA) i optymalizacji roju cząstek (PSO), optymalizacja Gray Wolf (GWO) i algorytm optymalizacji wielorybów (WOA) należą do metaheurystycznych technik optymalizacji stosowanych do określenia optymalnych parametrów krzywej S. Ponadto algorytmy te oraz sztuczna sieć neuronowa (SSN) zostały również wykorzystane do oszacowania zużycia węgla. Przy ocenie zużycia węgla za pomocą SSN jako parametry wejściowe wykorzystuje się parametry energetyczne i ekonomiczne, takie jak moc zainstalowana, produkcja brutto, zużycie energii elektrycznej netto, import, eksport i energia ludności. W modelowaniu SSN wykorzystano strukturę Feed Forward Multilayer Perceptron Network, a do uczenia sieci wykorzystano propagację wsteczną Levenberg-Marquardt. Krzywe S zostały obliczone za pomocą optymalizacji, a ich skuteczność w przewidywaniu zużycia węgla została oceniona statystycznie. Wyniki pokazują, że podejście oparte na optymalizacji opartej na krzywej S zapewnia większą dokładność niż SSN w rozwiązaniu przedstawionego problemu. Wyniki statystyczne obliczone przez GWO mają wyższą dokładność niż PSO, WOA i GA z R2 = 0,9881, RE = 0,011, RMSE = 1,079, MAE = 1,3584 i STD = 1,5187. Nowość tego badania, prezentowana metodyka nie wymaga dodatkowych parametrów wejściowych do analizy. Dzięki temu może być z łatwością wykorzystany z dużą dokładnością do oszacowania zużycia węgla w innych krajach o tendencji wzrostowej zużycia węgla, takich jak Turcja.
 
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