The use of waste in cement production in Poland – the move towards sustainable development
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AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Resource Management
Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences
Submission date: 2022-08-07
Final revision date: 2022-08-24
Acceptance date: 2022-09-05
Publication date: 2022-09-30
Corresponding author
Alicja Uliasz-Bocheńczyk   

AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Resource Management
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2022;38(3):67–81
The cement industry has been using waste as a raw material for many years. Waste is also used as alternative fuel. Cement plants are an important element of the waste management system and fit the idea of a circular economy. When waste is recovered in the cement production process, direct and indirect CO2 emissions are partially avoided. This article discusses the cement industry in Poland. The current situation in terms of the use of alternative fuels and raw materials in Poland, the different types of waste and the amount of waste used is discussed. The article discusses changes in the amount of waste (the increase in the amount of waste used as raw materials from the year 2006 to the year 2019) and the types of waste recovered in the cement production process and the possibility of closing material cycles on the plant scale (recycling to the primary process – cement kiln dust) and industry (using waste from other industries: metallurgy – granulated blast furnace slag, iron bearings; energy production – fly ash, reagypsum/phosphogypsum, fluidized bed combustion fly ash, and fluidized bed combustion bottom ash; wastewater treatment plants – sewage sludge, etc.). The analysis shows that the role of cement plants in waste management and the circular economy in Poland is important. Industrial waste from metallurgy, power plants, heat and power plants, wastewater treatment plants, and municipal waste is used as the raw material for the cement industry, leading to an industrial symbiosis.
The work was performed within the AGH University of Science and Technology subvention research program no. and statutory research of the Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Odpady w produkcji cementu w Polsce – w kierunku zrównoważonego rozwoju
case study, przemysł cementowy, paliwa alternatywne, odpady mineralne, symbioza przemysłowa
Przemysł cementowy od wielu lat wykorzystuje odpady przemysłowe i komunalne jako surowce mineralne oraz energetyczne. prowadząc do symbiozy przemysłowej. Cementownie są ważnym elementem systemu gospodarki odpadami i wpisują się w ideę gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym. Odzysk odpadów w procesie produkcji cementu przekłada się na częściowe uniknięcie bezpośredniej i pośredniej emisji CO2. W artykule omówiono zmiany ilościowe stosowanych odpadów (wzrost ilości odpadów wykorzystywanych jako surowcew latach 2006–2019), jak również rodzaje odpadów poddanych odzyskowi w procesie produkcji cementu oraz możliwość zamknięcia obiegów materiałowych na skalę zakładową (recykling w ramach procesu pierwotnego – pył z pieca cementowego) i przemysłową (wykorzystywanie odpadów z innych gałęzi przemysłu: hutnictwo – granulowany żużel wielkopiecowy, dodatki żelazonośne; produkcja energii – popiół lotny, reagips/fosfogips, popioły fluidalne; oczyszczalnie ścieków – osady ściekowe itp.). Przeprowadzona w artykule analiza wskazuje na istotną rolę cementowni w systemie gospodarki odpadami i gospodarce o obiegu zamkniętym w Polsce.
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