Monazite-bearing post processing wastes and their potential economic significance
Krzysztof Szamałek 1  
,   Zglinicki Karol 2  
,   Konopka Gustaw 2  
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University of Warsaw
Polish Geological Institute
Krzysztof Szamałek   

University of Warsaw
Submission date: 2019-10-09
Final revision date: -0001-11-30
Acceptance date: 2020-03-30
Publication date: 2020-03-30
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2020;36(1):37–58
During the geological prospecting works conducted in 2013 on Bangka Island (Indonesia), high monazite content was identified in the wastes produced during processing of cassiterite deposits. Monazite, among 250 known minerals containing REE, is one of the most important minerals as primary source of REE.The monazite content in this waste is up to 90.60%. The phase composition of the investigated tailing proves that the sources of minerals accompanying the placer sediments tin mineralization are granitoids. The tailing is composed of numerous ore minerals, including monazite, xenotime, zircon, cassiterite, malayaite, struverite, aeschynite-(Y), ilmenite, rutile, pseudorutile and anatase. Monazite grains belong to the group of cerium monazite. Its grains are characterized by high content of Ce2O3 27.12–33.50 wt.%, La2O3 up to 15.46 wt.%, Nd2O3 up to 12.87%. The total REE2O3 + Y content ranges from 58.18 to 65.90 wt.%. Monazite grains observations (SEM-BSE) revealed the presence of porous zones filled with fine phases of minerals with U and Th content. The radiation intensity of 232Th is ATh = 340 ± 10 Bq and 238AU = 114 ± 2 Bq. High content of monazite and other REE minerals indicates that tailing is a very rich, potential source of REEs, although the presence of radioactive elements at the moment is a technological obstacle in their processing and use. The utilization of monazite bearing waste in the Indonesian Islands can be an important factor for development and economic activation of this region and an example of the good practice of circular economy rules.
Odpady monacytonośne i ich potencjalne znaczenie gospodarcze
wyspa Bangka, odpady przeróbcze, monacyt, REE
W trakcie geologicznych prac prospekcyjnych prowadzonych w 2013 roku na indonezyjskiej wyspie Bangka stwierdzono wysokie zawartości monacytu w odpadach powstałych po przeróbce osadów kasyterytonośnych. Monacyt jest jednym z najważniejszych pierwotnych źródeł REE wśród 250 znanych minerałów zawierających REE. Zawartość monacytu w badanym odpadzie wynosi do 90,60%. Skład fazowy badanych odpadów wskazuje, że źródłem minerałów towarzyszących w cynonośnych złożach okruchowych były granitoidy. W składzie odpadu przeróbczego, metodą XRD zidentyfikowano obecność licznych minerałów złożowych, wśród nich: monacyt, ksenotym, cyrkon, kasyteryt, malayait, strüveryt, aeschynit-(Y), ilmenit, rutyl, pseudorutyl i anataz. Badania składu chemicznego ziaren monacytu z użyciem EPMA ujawniły, że należy on do grupy monacytu cerowego. Jego ziarna cechują się wysoką zawartością Ce2O3 27,12–33,50% wt., La2O3 do 15,46% wt., Nd2O3 do 12,87%. Całkowita zawartość REE2O3 + Y mieści się w zakresie od 58,18 do 65,90% wt. Obserwacje ziaren monacytu (BSE) ujawniły w nich obecność stref porowatych wypełnionych drobnymi fazami minerałów z udziałem U oraz Th. Aktywność promieniotwórcza 232Th wynosi ATh = 340 ± 10 Bq, a 238U = 114 ± 2 Bq. Wysoka zawartość monacytu oraz innych minerałów nośników REE wskazuje, że odpad przeróbczy stanowi bardzo bogate, potencjalne źródło pierwiastków ziem rzadkich, choć zawartość pierwiastków promieniotwórczych stanowi obecnie przeszkodę technologiczną w ich przetwarzaniu i wykorzystaniu. Wykorzystanie monacytonośnych odpadów z wysp Indonezji może być ważnym czynnikiem rozwoju i aktywizacji gospodarczej tego regionu oraz przykładem dobrej praktyki stosowania zasad gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym.
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