Rare earth elements in the Sin Quyen IOCG deposit, North Vietnam
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AGH-University of Science and Technology
Hanoi University of Mining and Geology
Submission date: 2022-01-20
Final revision date: 2022-02-16
Acceptance date: 2022-02-28
Publication date: 2022-03-23
Corresponding author
Adam Piestrzynski   

AGH-University of Science and Technology
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2022;38(1):17-60
The Sin Quyen deposit is characterized by a high accumulation of rare earth elements (REE). This deposit belongs to the IOCG type copper deposits (Iron Oxide Copper-Gold Deposits). In the deposit, the REE carrier minerals have been identified as follow: allanite, titanite, uraninite, monazite, apatite, chevkinite, aeschynite, bastnäsite, and epidote. In the skarn zone, contents of allanite range from single percentages to 10% in hand-size specimens. Locally, minerals of epidote subgroup which occur in large amounts in the host rocks are important. The studied allanites have concentrations of: REE (14–27 wt%), Ca (9–16 wt%), Al (8–19 wt%), Si (26–34 wt%) and Fe (12–21 wt%). Two populations of allanite are documented, the first is texturally older and probably related to the Ca-K alteration (second stage of crystallization). This population has higher REE concentration ranging from 20 to 27 wt%. The second population is texturally younger and has a lower total REE concentration ranging from 14 to 19.9 wt%, which occur mostly as a rim surrounding the older and likely arose during the K alteration with Cu-Au mineralization (third crystallization). The chemical composition indicates that the studied allanites belong to the Ce-La-ferriallanite family, with low ΣHREE and an average of 0.21 wt.%. A temperature of 355°C which was calculated using a value of δ34S isotopes is interpreted as a temperature of the second crystallization stage of allanite. In the studied deposit, excluding allanite and titanite, the other bearing REE minerals have an insignificant role in the REE balance, since they either have the total content of REE, which is often close to the WDS detection limit (rf. the epidote subgroup), or their only occur at the single points. The content of total REE in accessory uraninites is high and range from 1.311% up to 7.959% with an average value of 4.852%.
The work was financially supported by UST-AGH Krakow, Grants no and and University of Mining and Geology (UMG), Hanoi, Vietnam, Grant no. 01/2012/HD-HTQTSP. The authors are grateful to G. Kozub PhD and A. Włodek PhD from the Critical Elements Laboratory FGGEP UST-AGH Krakow for the WDS analyses and to T. Ćwiertnia MSc for preparation of the graphics.
Pierwiastki ziem rzadkich w złożu IOCG Sin Quyen, Północny Wietnam
REE, allanit, minerały złoża, IOCG, N-Wietnam
Złoże Sin Quyen charakteryzuje się wysoką zawartością pierwiastków ziem rzadkich (REE). Złoże to należy do typu złóż miedzi IOCG (Iron Oxide Copper-Gold Deposits). Zidentyfikowane minerały zawierające REE to: allanit, tytanit, uraninit, monacyt, apatyt, czewkinit, aeschynit, bastnäsyt i epidotyt. W próbkach wielkości dłoni, pobranych ze strefy skarnowej, zawartości allanitu wahają się od pojedynczych do 10%. Lokalnie, minerały podrzędnej grupy epidotytu są ważne z powodu ich licznego występowania. Badane allanity zawierają: REE (14–27 wt%), Ca (9–16% wag.), Al (8–19% wag.), Si (26–34% wag.) i Fe (12–21% wag.). Udokumentowano dwie populacje allanitu, pierwsza jest teksturalnie starsza i prawdopodobnie związana z alteracją Ca-K (drugi etap krystalizacji). Ta populacja ma wyższe koncentracje REE, które są zawarte w przedziale od 20 do 27% wag. Druga populacja jest młodsza i zawiera mniejsze ilości ziem rzadkich (od 14 do 19,9% wag.). Populacja ta występuje głównie w postaci obwódek regeneracyjnych, tworząc zrosty ze starszą populacją i jest związana z alteracją potasową oraz mineralizacją Cu-Au (trzeci etap krystalizacji). Skład chemiczny wskazuje, że badane allanity należą do podgrupy Ce-La-ferriallanitu, o niskiej i średniej koncentracji ΣHREE 0,21% wag. Temperatura krystalizacji 355°C, została obliczona na podstawie wartości δ34S. Ta temperatura jest interpretowana jako temperatura drugiego etapu krystalizacji. W badanym złożu, poza allanitami i tytanitami, inne minerały REE i ich nośniki mają małe znaczenie w bilansie ich zawartości. Na przykład sumaryczna zawartość REE w podrzędnie występującym epidocie, jest na poziomie wykrywalności metody WDS, a inne minerały, takie jak uraninit, czewkinit, aeschynit, czy bastnäsyt występują zbyt rzadko, aby wpływać na bilans tych metali. W akcesorycznym uraninicie, pomierzone zawartości REE wahają się w granicach 1,31–7,96%, przy średniej zawartości 4,85%.
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