Environmental impact assessment of mining activities. A new approach for mining methods selection
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Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2011;27(2):113-143
Mining activities from exploration to final material handling up to shipment pass through various stages where environmental pollution results. Mining method can and should be selected in such a way that their impact on individuals and environmental to be minimized. Until now, different mining specialists have carried out many studies on mining method selection. Unfortunately neither of previous approaches takes into account of the environmental consideration and methodology for assessment of environmental impacts criterion. This paper discusses environmental impacts of mining operations associated with different mining methods. For this purpose, the Folchi approach was modified for environmental impact assessment which associates the mining methods inherently and developed of a procedure to assist a selecting of mining method. Firstly, the general and explanatory information about effects of mining on the environmental pollution are given in the paper. Moreover field and purposes of the study are introduced. The paper presents an environmental assessment for different mining methods. And, secondly, the impacts of each mining methods on environment are focused and discussed. Finally, some concluding remarks are made and the related applications for the mining method selection are discussed by using in a case study. As the main advantage, this new algorithm takes several environmental issues and their interaction takes into consideration for environmental assessment of a mining method selection.
Ocena wpływu górnictwa na środowisko. Nowe podejście do wyboru metod eksploatacji
wpływ na środowisko, przemysł górniczy, metoda eksploatacji, metoda Folchiego, złoże rudy żelaza, Gol-E-Gohar, Iran
Działania górnicze, począwszy od rozpoznania złóż aż po transport finalnego produktu, to szereg etapów prowadzących do zanieczyszczenia środowiska. Metody eksploatacji mogą i powinny być dobierane w taki sposób, by ich wpływ na środowisko i człowieka był jak najmniejszy. Różni specjaliści zajmujący się górnictwem przeprowadzili do tej pory szereg badań dotyczących zagadnienia wyboru metod eksploatacji. Niestety, dotychczas stosowane podejścia nie brały pod uwagę środowiska i metodologii, w których wpływ na środowisko stanowiłby kryterium oceny. Ta praca przedstawia wpływ operacji górniczych na środowisko w zależności od zastosowanych systemów eksploatacji. W tym celu wykorzystano metodę Folchi'ego, odpowiednio zmodyfikowaną dla potrzeb oceny wpływu na środowisko, do której włączono metody eksploatacji i opracowano procedury pomagające dokonać wyboru tych właściwych. Na wstępie przedstawione zostały ogólne i objaśniające informacje na temat wpływu górnictwa na zanieczyszczenie środowiska. Następnie zaprezentowano przedmiot i cele badania. Praca przedstawia ocenę środowiskową dla różnych systemów eksploatacji. Omawia również szczegółowo wpływ poszczególnych metod eksploatacji na środowisko wraz z oceną. W podsumowaniu zawarto uwagi końcowe oraz przedyskutowano ich zastosowania dla wyboru metod eksploatacji na przykładzie studium przypadku. Główną zaletą nowego algorytmu jest fakt, iż bierze pod uwagę interakcję wielu czynników środowiskowych przy ocenie wpływu na środowisko wybranych metod eksploatacji.
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