Applied technologies to prevent environmental risks after mine closure in Japan and future perspectives
 
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Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 2008;24(3):389–398
 
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ABSTRACT
Mine pollutions have been a serious issue in Japan since the 1970s. Efforts have been poured into technical development to recover the previous nature continuously for over 30 years. There are many successful R&D examples undertaken so far, and many of the results were practically applied to the abandoned mine sites. Accordingly, the problems aroused have been gradually solved, and most of them have been extinguished by these efforts. However, the AMD treatments must be continued as long as the pollutant is generated. Costs for perpetually continuing water treatment operation, disposal spaces for continuingly generating sludge, decrepit facilities and tightening regulations on the environment are recent emerging problems. In this paper, mining and environmental issues in Japan, including the outline of the legal structure and commonly used technologies to prevent mine pollutions, are explained. Then, technology outlines, results, applications and the implemented period of R&D projects so far carried out, such as 'Vegetation of tailing dam area', 'Adit plugging technology', and 'Sealing technology of mineralized zone', etc., are summarized briefly, and the latest projects, such as 'Bacterial oxidation and two-step neutralization process', 'Mine drainage control technology by polymer use' and 'Water treatment process for newly regulated elements' are described as well. In the last part of this paper, future perspectives on the technologies are discussed. A basic concept of technologies on mine pollution prevention is considered that the mine pollution prevention is to prevent toxic substances diffusions; therefore a basic idea to prevent mine pollutions should be to prevent generation of the pollution itself, or to complete a treatment or disposition of the toxic substances only inside themine. To realize this basic idea, new technologies are proposed both for the 'Mine drainage treatment', which is to process and control the wastewater or seepage water quality under certain toxic contents levels to avoid the environmental impact on the downstream areas, and the 'Pollution sources', which are the way to mitigate the burden to the environment by controlling the pollution sources. To responding on the 'New regulatory orders' and to introducing the 'Passive treatment' which has not been practically applied in Japan, were discussed as well.
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Polish
Technologie stosowane do zapobiegania ryzykom środowiskowym po zamknięciu kopalni w Japonii i perspektywy
środowisko, kopalnia nieużytkowana, zanieczyszczenie kopalni, AMD, uzdatnianie wody
Zanieczyszczenia pochodzące z kopalni są poważną kwestią w Japonii od lat siedemdziesiątych XX wieku. W ciągu ponad 30 lat włożono wiele wysiłku w opracowanie sposobów przywrócenia stanu pierwotnego. Wiele przykładów udanych prac badawczych podjęto do tej pory, wiele wyników tych prac stosuje się w praktyce w dawnych kopalniach. Problemy zostały stopniowo rozwiązane, a dzięki podjętym staraniom większość z nich została rozwiązana. Zabiegi AMD muszą być jednak prowadzone tak długo, jak długo generowany jest polutant. Koszty ciągłego uzdatniania wody, zapewnienia przestrzeni dla usuwanie generowanego osadu, niszczejących instalacji i coraz ostrzejszych przepisów ochrony środowiska są nowszymi problemami, jakie się pojawiają.
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ISSN:0860-0953